Mafia. All have heard about it and everyone knows about it. But what does the word mafia, and where did the same name the organization? Just what I want to tell.
Let's start with the origin of the word. The exact value of no one knows, but there are several versions or suggestions on this matter. Some believe that this word is an acronym of the motto anti-French uprising in 1282. Motto is - "Death to France, Breathe, Italy!". Or "Morte alla Francia Italia Anelia" in Italian. The first letters of the cry just make up a word MAFIA. Another version says that the word "mafia" - a legacy of the time when Sicily was an Arab territory, and is the notion of Arab rights, denoting protect ordinary people from the authorities of iniquity. Finally, some believe that the "mafia" is simply a family. I think this version is very close to the truth, but more on that further. Widespread is the word received in the 1862-1863 years, when was a play by Giuseppe Ritstsotto "Mafioso of the vicariate" in the theater of Palermo with great success. There are still many legends about the origin of the word, to present them all is not possible. But if you want you can always find them on the web or books.
And now to the history of the Mafia as an organization. About mafia unstable in all media. Titles like "The mafia are operating in the Kremlin," do not go out the front pages of the tabloids. "Russian mafia" and similar concepts are used in almost every film. Anyway, earlier it was used. But it's all bullshit. So only the ignorant people write. Mafia can be only one - the Sicilian. Even in Italy such organizations are called differently. "Ndrangetta" - in Calabria, "Sacra Corona unit" - in Puglia, the "Camorra" - in Naples. Mafia is only one.
At the beginning of the Mafia was only a rural phenomenon. But it should be noted that just as there is no one version of the origin of this society. Some believe that it originated somewhere in the IX-X century as a voluntary militia with the aim to protect Sicilian fishermen and farmers from the raids of the Arab pirates. During that members of the Mafia received "security money". But they began to claim this payment, and when the threat of pirates disappeared. However, the real mafia clans formed in Sicily in the XVI century after the island was captured by the Spaniards. Sicilians do not particularly trust the Spanish authorities and formed a secret society, originally performs the function of maintaining order and protecting the weakest members of the community.
There is another option. Since virtually remained feudal regime, rampant robbers, in whose ranks flocked poor peasants, fugitives, deserters soldiers, and sometimes the monks expelled or fled from the monasteries in Sicily in 1860. This hangout opposed land tenants with their helpers and armed government troops. Between these three armed groups had conflicts, but they had common interests. Murder alternated with bidding and buying stolen goods stolen goods and cattle. Sometimes armed groups were given some gang of robbers, after pre-payment amount as a promise to refrain from attacks. Sometimes they talked about the instruction, pre-specified with the bandits, go on looting and robbery in neighboring areas, but more often - against a particular lord or landlord, so that from this raid secret mastermind of the crime removed personal benefit. Good profits brought in, and kidnapping. So there was a mafia.
What happened next? Mafia evolved into a secret community with its internal structure and rules that must be strictly abide by its members. Gradually the rural mafia modernized. By the end of XIX - early XX century, the leading Italian mafia clans moved to the city. Mafia began to penetrate into the sphere of construction, the smuggling of drugs and alcohol, the entertainment industry. One can easily imagine the number of mobsters on the following facts. It was used for the election. They sent their votes in favor of a particular candidate, which is then provided her services. How many people were in their ranks to overcome all voting ... Just mafia was thin due to the police.
Gradually, the Sicilian Mafia has extended its influence to the whole of Italy. There she began to liaise with the "Camorra", "Ndrangettoy", "La Nova Sacra Corona Unita." All the Italian criminal organizations were, in fact, a single organized crime. But all of them are autonomous and independent.
Now we know that the Mafia - the family crime with specific historical roots. But how to become a mafioso? For an ordinary person can not just pass away and to request enrollment in the family, right? Although if something distinguished to mobsters, then he had the opportunity. But mostly mafioso do not become, they were born. Root mafioso - the blood of his family. If you are not a son, not his nephew or cousin mafioso, then you're not the mafia. Marriages in the Mafia as concluded between the families, like the houses of kings. The basis and essence of itself Mafia was mafioso family. It was the patriarchal family, typical peasant. The basic rule in such a family - subordination. At the head of the family was the father, who did not necessarily have great advantages. But he, and only he owned the right to decide what to do each family member, to distribute income between them, to teach children the craft. The family thanks to training cruelty reached such an automatic obedience, the son identified his freedom only with full blind obedience to the Father's will. The woman at first glance, did not have the weight of the public, because that almost never went beyond the threshold of his house, but it had a much greater impact than men thought she kept house and forced men to think about increasing the family income. There were times when it is the woman encouraged men to find new ways to enrichment. The woman raised her children and was the guardian of family traditions. The family mafioso was a woman preparing children for vendetta. In order to recognize a Sicilian mafioso, he had to possess certain qualities. No one in his family has said that there are "community and staff." His childhood had been taught that "hostile world, promises to threats and dangers, cruel and harsh", and if you want to achieve "wealth, power and influence," he must "fight against everything and against everyone." The main character trait mafioso - individualism, all his thoughts are focused only on achieving their goals. Mafioso is to show everyone that he has enough courage: it should be able to keep quiet, to follow the law of omerta (mutual responsibility). He can not live without arms. Disrespect or insult inflicted on the dignity of mafioso must be avenged in public for all to see its effect. Influence and power, enabling them to function in society, bring the mafia, especially crime. "Don", leader of the mafia family, constantly need to seek satisfaction of lust for power. Because of this, very often it has manifested paranoid traits such as excessive distrust, morbid desire to never show their feelings and emotions, driven to extremes of suspicion in relation to all others. As the researchers note, among the mafia are frequent manifestations of dementia, combined with epileptic seizures.
Blood Ties between the members of the Mafia continues unabated at a distance and not over the years. Traitor may appear before the commission, even after many years, even if it is not kept in touch with other mafiosi.
In mobsters had their charters. They are obliged to assist each other in revenge inflicted insults; protect and seek the release of the mafioso, has got the authorities; Mafiosi were eligible to participate in a sharing of revenues; mafioso is obliged to keep secret, even under threat of death.
For violation of an item impose different penalties. Most often it is a "warning, warning, suggestion and public penance." It is worth noting that the latter is rarely used, since the mafia is the loss of prestige and influence. The most severe sentence - death. But researchers say that when it is said that some leaders or persons holding a high position in the Mafia, "sentenced" to death, it is necessary to approach this with some caution. Often talk about a well-deserved "a penalty" - merely a disguise, whose purpose - to conceal that the killer was thinking primarily about how to get to him, and the commanding heights to be replaced as leader, in whose veins flowed the blood of siblings. This is the death penalty mafia law is divided into two types: the exercise of the right of revenge and punishment of a traitor. Naturally penal system requires the existence of groups that have the right to impose sentences, but researchers still do not know what kind of group.
How to become mafia and what were their principles we understand. We now turn directly to the mafia stories.
In Italy the fight against the mafia was almost impossible because it was a struggle against a family community. In Sicily, the fundamental cell of the mafia called "Last Name", or "family." It includes all members of a large family clan. According to the judge of the criminal laws of the Apennines can only be in the presence of a witness. But the mother can not give evidence at his son or brother to brother? Not able to testify against each other and members of the hostile clans because the mafia was a law omerta. A member of the Mafia could never "open race" if vowed lifelong fidelity. Violators of the law is punishable by death. Therefore, every witness in Italy knows for sure that he would be killed in the wild or in prison. And if you do not kill him, it just killed his relatives. This made the mafia is almost invulnerable.
The first breach in the law of silence was broken in 1984, when he spoke Tommaso Buscetta. Opponents killed almost all his relatives, and he decided to take revenge. As a result, 1985 was held the first grand trial of hundreds of mobsters, most of them were behind bars.
In the 1980's war of clans began in Italy. In this war killed so many people that a new generation mafia decided to engage in legal business, while maintaining omerta and other principles of a secret society. This phenomenon was called "Goat new" that is "new deal", by analogy with the self-designation of the Sicilian Mafia - "Cosa Nostra", "Our business", respectively.
The most famous Italian mafia, which became the prototypes of heroes of novels about the Mafia films like "The Godfather", "Octopus" and many others - is Lucky Luciano, Vito Genovese, Paul Castellano, Salvatore Maranzano, Giuseppe Masseria, Joe Bonanno, Frank Ayele, Al Capone, Meyer Lansky, Carlo Gambino, Paul Castellano, Vincent Gigante, and others.
Sicilian Mafia as related to crime in other countries, in particular with gangster organizations in the US, where the organizational form of the Mafia were introduced by Italian immigrants - Sicilians late XIX - early XX centuries. In America after the Second World War became known mafia organization "Cosa Nostra", which we already know. Then the "Cosa Nostra", getting stronger, returned home and began to dominate the traditional mafia. After that, she has become a modern, efficient criminal organizations involved in smuggling of drugs and weapons, money laundering, control of prostitution, hostage-taking and kidnapping. In this case, "Cosa Nostra" is actively cooperating with the criminal organizations in several countries in North and South America, Albania, Germany and other countries of East and West. The connection between the Italian and Russian organized crime.
In 1950 - 1960 in Italy, a special government body "Anti-Mafia", a lot of mobsters were arrested. But the mafia has not ceased its activities, it has entered into an alliance with the policy. One of the most famous Italian politicians, multiple prime Giulio Andreotti was accused of having links with the Mafia, but it is not able to prove. Mafia organizes terrorist acts and attempts on the lives of politicians, prosecutors and judges. But the power struggle with the Mafia, and, especially in recent years, with notable success. In May 2004, the "cleansing" in the Sicilian countryside, and 11 people were arrested were held in key positions in one of the clans. According to police, two of them were at all close aides "boss of bosses" - Bernardo Provenzano, who is wanted for the past 30 years. This arrest was not the first blow to the environment Provenzano. In 2002, the police seized his "right hand" - Nino Giuffre, who later became a police informant. November 14, 2003 as a result of a joint operation by Interpol and Italian special services arrested 68-year-old Giovanni Bonomo, accused of money laundering and murder and declared an international arrest warrant for seven years before. With the support of Interpol, Bonomo was detained by law enforcement authorities of Senegal and taken to Rome. Supreme leader of the mafia Toto Riina is not the first year in prison. Recently in Palermo 26 major Mafiosi were sentenced to life imprisonment for murder. There were also "repentant" Mafioso who, realizing the hopelessness of their situation, cooperate with justice in exchange for certain discounts in the punishment. In March 2006, in the Italian region of Calabria Carabinieri arrested one of the bosses of the Mafia - "Ndrangetty" 39-year-old Giuseppe d`Agostino that a fugitive from justice for 10 years.
But this does not mean that the Mafia is living its last days. Mafia is likely seeking more and more influence in the judiciary and government bodies. Now she has gone into hiding and likely to inflict a blow it again to show the world their strength and prove that it will overcome any difficulties.